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Hero's ethnicity may have been either Greek or Hellenized Egyptian. It is almost certain that Hero taught at the Musaeum which included the famous Library of Alexandria, because most of his writings appear as lecture notes for courses in mathematics, mechanics, physics and pneumatics. Although the field was not formalized until the twentieth century, it is thought that the work of Hero, in particular his automated devices, represented some of the first formal research into cybernetics.
physics: F. tists do not study relatively or particle physics, but thermodynamics is an integral.Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal PhysicsFrederick Reif on Amazon.com. FREE shipping on qualifying offers. Frederick Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, McGraw-
55 GB.P. Pettersson Reif, Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows 2010 2nd Edition ISBN-10: 0470689315 372 pages PDF 4 MB.Reif first introduces basic probability concepts and statistical methods used throughout all of physics.
Statistical ideas are then applied to. To 10 of VIntroduction to Statistical PhysicsV, by Silvio R. Institute of Physics, University of So Paulosrasalinasgmail.com. 3 The Principle of Largest Uncertainty in Statistical Mechanics 14. Heat and thermodynamics are traditionally taught in theintroductory physics course. Future courses in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics. Solution manual of modern physics by Arther Buiser. 15,
skills and time management can be found at.Prerequisites: undergraduate statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Books: The coursetextbook is Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal.Aug 11, 2014. A companion volume, The Statistical Physics of Fields
covers.Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics: F. tists do not study relatively or particle physics, but thermodynamics is anintegral.Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics Frederick Reif on Amazon.com. All macroscopic systems consist.Fundamentals of
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David Pines, a physics instructor at Penn 1950-1952 and a leader in condensed matter physics whose work paved the way for several Nobel prizes, died on May 3 from pancreatic cancer at his home in Urbana, Illinois. He was 93.
Dr. Pines received his undergraduate degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1944 and his doctorate from Princeton in 1950. In addition to teaching at Penn, he also taught at Princeton; he spent most of his career at the University of Illinois. He also worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and the University of California, Davis, and he helped found the Santa Fe Institute.
Throughout the code in a climate model are equations that govern the underlying physics of the climate system, from how sea ice forms and melts on Arctic waters to the exchange of gases and moisture between the land surface and the air above it.
It is akin to the manager of a football team. He or she picks the team, chooses the formation and settles on the tactics, but once the team is out on the pitch, the manager cannot dictate if and when the team scores or concedes a goal. In a climate model, scientists set the ground rules based on the physics of the Earth system, but it is the model itself that creates the storms, droughts and sea ice.
The next level up are General Circulation Models (GCMs), also called Global Climate Models, which simulate the physics of the climate itself. This means they capture the flows of air and water in the atmosphere and/or the oceans, as well as the transfer of heat.
Boltzmann, however, speaks not only about three-dimensional models of surfaces in mathematics but also about models of surfaces in physics, above all in thermodynamics, where they mathematically represented the behavior of gases and fluids:
"There are moments when a sober and frank evaluation is the only thing to undertake," de Kiewiet told (1950) an audience of selected U. of R. graduates. "We received such an evaluation recently from the Middle States Association. Except for the one or two areas where they got a little too much inside guidance, their report was an extremely intelligent and revealing account of both strength and weakness." 1Speaking thus, the President had in mind a survey of the University, in all its diversity and amplitude, carried out by a team of educational specialists from other institutions. The group functioned under the auspices of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and of five specialized agencies of education; for the information of the appraisers, thirteen detailed booklets on the various branches of the Rochester complex were prepared by administrative officers, and that voluminous data was supplemented and reinforced by on-the-spot investigations by members of the evaluation team extending from the sixth into the ninth of December, 1959. Chairman of the group, comprising thirty-three men and women, was President John C. Warner of the Carnegie Institute of Technology. His colleagues focused their attention on two principal areas of examination and assessment; instruction and research, with sub-committees assigned to the College of Arts and Science, each of the professional schools, and "supporting services."Their report, dated April 23, 1960, if somewhat superficial, was quite comprehensive and reasonably detached. Since the document was the product of representatives of universally respected educational bodies, it has singular usefulness for the historian and will frequently be referred to on the pages that follow. Inasmuch as the Rochester authorities had set excellence in every respect as the University goal, the visitation leaders let it be known that the evaluations were based on that exalted standard. 2As an overall estimate, the investigators found the University in a "healthy state.. .In the academic areas in which it has chosen to concentrate, it enjoys an enviable reputation throughout the country." And again, "Rochester has succeeded in making itself one of the nation's important universities; it has already won eminence in some areas; and its future is very promising." Although the evaluators questioned whether the several components of the University supported each other to maximum advantage, they warmly applauded "a deliberate commitment to excellence...a teaching staff of generally fine equality...and admirable plant [obnoxious term]; and a disinclination to expand the instruction and research program at the cost of quality."So far as the historic arts college was concerned, it seemed "to occupy effectively its strategic role as the sustaining root of the university...the center from which the rest radiates." The teaching staff appeared to be ''one of high quality, on the whole, and of healthy variety. The visitors are impressed with the quality, variety, and amount of research activity they found, with the provision made for scholarly work...and with the reasonable system of leaves for research and professional development."Many aspects of the University's stance toward the College of Arts and Science were pronounced praiseworthy, notably the central position accorded the basic disciplines, the high level of performance expected, "and the equal emphasis placed upon instruction and scholarship in faculty recruitment and recognition." While unhesitatingly directing attention to some deficiencies, some blemishes, the visiting experts would not change the structure of the College nor "its direction of growth in any significant way;" in fact, they expressed envy over the position the institution had attained and its prospects for the future. 3Concerning the administrative side of the University, the investigators registered relatively few criticisms. They felt, however, that the president's cabinet needed to develop into a more effective instrument of coordination and cooperation between the several branches of the University, and that the professoriate should be more deeply involved in planning and policymaking. Specifically, if somewhat broadly, it was hinted that a unifying mechanism--a kind of academic senate--should be instituted as a common forum for the faculties of the various divisions of the University.It was also recommended that communication between administrators and undergraduates be improved, since the latter felt that important decisions were made without giving consideration to student opinion and that reasons for major administrative actions were not always adequately explained. So far as the management of University finances was concerned, the evaluators urged revision (or sharper definition) in the functions of the comptroller and the business manager and in accounting procedures; it was felt, too, that a full time internal auditor and a classroom scheduling officer should be added to the administrative apparatus. 4Actually, moves had already been made to tone up the president's cabinet, meetings being held more frequently, often biweekly. Differences of opinion repeatedly cropped up between the President and the college deans, Noyes in particular constantly pressing for strengthening the research elements in the faculty as opposed to costly curricular innovations, and he was annoyed by the way in which the preparation of the annual budget was handled. It was Noyes' conviction, vigorously expressed, that he as the dean of the College of Arts and Science should be allowed much wider latitude in decision making than prevailed. In 1957, Deans Habein and Wantman resigned, as Hoffmeister had done the preceding year. In 1957 also, as right-hand man to Noyes, McCrea Hazlett, it has been noted, was chosen dean of students from a large field of candidates; and in 1958 he succeeded Noyes in the deanship. 5de Kiewiet worked hand in glove with presidents of other leading New York State private universities on questions relating to state-financed institutions of higher learning. Together, they probably were of decisive significance in blocking the establishment of a competitive engineering school in Long Island, and they took a determined stand against a scheme to create a huge centralized state university, arguing that it was as unsound financially as educationally. In a "Declaration of Educational Principles and Recommendations " presented to the State Board of Regents, the university executives advocated that the state government underwrite strong existing universities instead of founding new ones. On another occasion, de Kiewiet, always the champion of exciting innovation, recommended that New York State should be divided into five or six educational regions, each centered upon a post-baccalaureate institution of excellence and embracing secondary schools, colleges, graduate and professional schools; the Rochester area, of course, would form one of the proposed divisions. Alternatively, as de Kiewiet saw the educational urgencies, the supreme need was not state-financed universities, but "the upgrading of the academic performance of our [public] schools..." These proposals fell on deaf ears; and a state committee on higher education reported (1960) favorably on a plan for three authentic state universities, one of them in the western section of New York, preferably incorporated with existing institutions.The Rochester Chamber of Commerce, scenting a valuable economic asset for the city in a vast state university ("a second Berkeley!"), named a committee to move "with all possible speed" to obtain it; "U. of R. Considered for State University," proclaimed a banner newspaper headline. The thought was that the University might be the nucleus of the tax-supported institution and would then resemble Cornell, part privately, part publicly financed. Whatever his inner conviction may have been, de Kiewiet professed "an open mind and a completely friendly disposition" toward the Chamber of Commerce initiative, and the University corporation gave the proposition thorough consideration.On the merit side of the column it was argued that as a state university, government funds, state and perhaps federal, too, would be supplied in huge volume, the faculties and the post-baccalaureate student population would expand, possibly law and architectural schools would be established, and, in general, the influence and national prestige of the University would be heightened. But grave disadvantages likewise presented themselves; endowment funds and administrative and managerial policies, for example would be subjected to supervision by state authorities. Control over standards of student admissions would be diminished if not entirely taken away, and the University might be exposed to undesirable political pressure. Bigness, moreover, would rob the institution of advantages implicit in comparatively small size. It was supposed, too, that some faculty members and more graduates would frown upon a merger. For a decade, a Rochester press editorial imagined, growing pains of a joint private-state institution would cause a decline in the distinction of the U. of R., a decrease in eminence.Balancing the pros and cons, the trustees voted that the better way toward the goal of excellence, the better way to contribute to the advancement of learning would be to perpetuate the historic private character of the University. Nevertheless, the corporation pledged full cooperation if a separate state university should be located in the Rochester area. All the talk about the future structure of the University may have inspired discussion in the trustee body on changing the name--perhaps to George Eastman University--but the overwhelming consensus was against alteration. In reality, the educational policymakers in Albany seem never to have seriously considered Rochester as the site of a state university; in any event, the ultimate decision joined the new institution to the University of Buffalo. When Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller brought forward (1961) a highly controversial scheme for tuition aid to New York students attending private colleges and universities, both secular and church-connected, de Kiewiet strongly endorsed the plan. 6In the meantime, state and Monroe County public bodies had definitely decided to establish a two-year community college in metropolitan Rochester. When that idea was initially broached, the trustee executive committee canvassed the situation, and the points were made that a community college would introduce an element of competition for students and for financial support from Rochester sources, and would raise problems of transfer of students to the University. Nevertheless, the committee (and the president's, cabinet) adopted a cooperative stance on the project, and when the Rochester Institute of Technology offered to operate the community college, that gambit was given "thoughtful consideration." In the end, the public policymakers decided upon a wholly separate Monroe Community College, which rapidly developed into, a flourishing institution. 7IIWithout let or halt, de Kiewiet fortified his reputation as a compelling spokesman in the interest of American higher education in general and of his own institution in particular. As he read the signs of the times, American colleges must shoulder "a dual mandate:" education of the brightest young minds, yes, but also training of "rank and file" students who would contribute initiative, daring, and support to first-raters. The guiding principle, he reasoned, should be to achieve the finest qualitative education for the greatest number of young people. For him higher learning was "a great solvent which smoothes out incompatible social differences and a principal architect of national coherence."While praising industrial and financial firms for their enlarging support of colleges and universities, he appealed to them to stretch themselves farther; unless truly colossal sums were quickly furnished tomorrow would be too late to prevent political and economic disaster, de Kiewiet declared. A crying need, he insisted, was larger resources to raise faculty salaries, since the dollar value of compensation had fallen far below the 1939 level; in effect, teachers were subsidizing the institutions to which they were attached, he commented. These observations, tendered originally to the Rochester trustees, were reproduced in an article that was circulated in thousands of reprints and elicited hearty acclaim from university executives all across America. 8 Addressing the New York State School Boards Association, the President vigorously advocated a search for "new principles that can be used to guide education in the space age, in the age of world revolution, in an age when only highly educated populations can carry their burdens." "The greatest cause of student mortality on the university level is the lack of a sense of intellectual confidence," he was convinced. "Many freshmen have not reached a plateau of knowledge and experience which fits them for the greater challenge of university work."Calling attention to the distinction between the complex university and "the simple and single college," he contended that educational "initiative has passed to the institutions in which undergraduate instruction, professional training and advanced research are all important components. Their interdependence and balance produce the successful university. The good universities...are in the vanguard of creative change in education."More than that, "the growing concern of faculties with graduate ''teaching and research is an essential advance in university development. It is indeed the most important mark of the shift of initiative into the university, away from secondary and arts college education. But," he went on, "it is also a disturbing flight from the undergraduate. If this flight continues we may acquire a national pattern of a handful of institutions protesting their concern with the quality education of the few."In a memorable utterance, de Kiewiet eloquently declared, "The measure, of a university's success can never be expressed in terms of a concrete product, or through a statistical tabulation. Precise evaluation of the outcome of effort and expenditure is deceptive or impossible...The only valid tests of success are to be found in such words as reputation, prestige, and scholarly atmosphere...These qualities are the real objectives of the University."On October 13, 1960, shortly before he resigned as President, de Kiewiet spoke to a company of U. of R. graduates on the condition of the institution and the academic priorities that the times demanded. "Ten years ago," he remarked, "we were on the point of being swept permanently aside by the superior momentum of other institutions." Happily, that dire calamity had been averted, but much awaited the doing to attain the University goal, which he defined as "a national institution, visible from any distance as one of the academic peaks of the nation... That we are more visible and salient today than ten years ago is true...That we are a national academic peak is not yet true"--a judgment open to some dissent.Blending an estimate of the past with the prospects for the future, the President said, "The greatest miscalculation in the life of the University was the belief that there could be a real university with only a small liberal arts college, no matter how much it emphasized quality"--again an interpretation that invites disagreement. "It is the principal task of this academic generation [meaning what?] to correct the disproportion and imbalance which resulted from this belief. [As the record plainly attests, by 1960 impressive progress had been achieved in rectifying the 'imbalance.'] In positive terms the principal task...is to carry to completion the development of the River Campus colleges. "While acknowledging the great value of undergraduate education, de Kiewiet prophesied that "we shall not prosper if we do not recognize how much the center of gravity in university education is shifting towards higher levels in professional and scientific training..." He hoped that the University would "formulate a truly aggressive plan to become an academic power in the area of world affairs," and he recurred to a favorite theme. "A university that is not actively and usefully working on the problems of Red China, the educational systems of the new Africa, the world population explosion...[and] the modernization of two billion people is not working on the frontiers of knowledge."Turning then to the area of science and medicine, the President pleaded for a "determined effort...an aggressive plan for the further development of biological science." If that were done, the University could "proceed to build up that supporting mechanism and helpful atmosphere and spirit of interdependence that I know to be the key to making this University one of the brilliant centers of science and medicine in the country."It was regrettable, the President remarked, that University plans for the future lacked intellectual boldness, and he took upon himself a share of the blame for that egregious shortcoming. "There is not a first rate, pioneering major element of intellectual inventiveness in our planning," he insisted. 9IIIThe sweep of the Middle States Association appraisal extended to the board of trustees. Evaluators learned that at corporation meetings the president customarily presented a statement on the current condition of the University, financial officers delivered reports, and an administrator gave an accounting on his area of special responsibility. They learned, too, that in a trustee body of twenty-eight one vacancy existed, and that attendance at meetings stood high; of an average age of around sixty, four trustees were younger than fifty, and four were seventy or more; the average length of service was nearly eleven years. de Kiewiet divided his "bosses" into two classes;" one set wished to maintain the status quo,' while the other was eager , to keep the' institution moving forward. As one result of the Middle States Association report, visiting committees of trustees were set up, for each branch of the University complex. 10Trustees normally retired at the age of seventy and were presented with tokens of appreciation and esteem in the form of color print of the Eastman Quadrangle and a plate engraved with their name and length of service; in some cases the switch from "active" to "honorary" status meant even greater attention to University affairs. Between 1954 and 1962 many new faces appeared on the Board, as for instance, by virtue of alumni election, Jacob R. Cominsky, 1920, Willard M. Allen, Medical School, 1932, Mitchell W. Miller, Eastman School, 1932, Samuel S. Stratton, 1937, Richard B. Secrest, 1943, and Joseph E. Morrissey, 1932.Four men of distinction from the, class of 1919 were elected to membership by the Board: Kenneth B. Keating, United States Senator, James E. McGhee, Kodak executive, Elmer B. Milliman, banker--all three residents of Rochester--and Leo D. Welch, Standard Oil of New Jersey executive. Other alumni brought on to the Board were George G. Smith, 1911, Buffalo attorney, John W. Remington, 1917, Rochester lawyer and banker (who had previously served as an alumni-elected trustee), and Donald A. Gaudion,1936, Rochester industrialist and community leader. Also enlisted from the Rochester business community were William S. Vaughn and Edward Peck Curtis (descendant of an original trustee) of the Eastman Kodak Company, and William W. McQuilkin, president of Bausch and Lomb. In 1961 no fewer than seven men entered the Board, among them Arthur Kantrowicz, physicist and businessman, Edward A. Weeks, editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and J. Douglas Brown, economist and dean of the faculty at Princeton University, who brought special educational insights into corporation deliberations and assessments of academic policies. Joseph C. Wilson, 1931, who as chairman of the executive committee had been groomed for larger responsibilities, succeeded Raymond N. Ball, 1914, in 1959 in the exacting role of Board chairman. 11In terms of vocation, seventeen of the twenty-eight trustees actively serving during 1961-1962 were associated with industrial or commercial concerns and two others--a lawyer and a scientist--had intimate business connections. Three board members were university officers, two were housewives, one United States Senator, one a Congressman, one an editor, and one a professional musician. All but seven of the trustees at the time resided in metropolitan Rochester ("practically the complete representation of the community's industrial hierarchy," someone remarked), and sixteen of the twenty-eight had earned degrees at the U. of R. Church affiliation of trustees, which had appreciable importance in the nineteenth century, had lost all meaning in the twentieth, yet it may be mentioned that the three major faiths of the United States were represented on the Board, Protestantism predominating.Now and then in intervals between regular meetings, President de Kiewiet despatched newsletters to the trustees to keep them abreast of developments. He also called their attention to an interesting, thoughtful, and provocative Memo to a College Trustee, largely written by Beardsley Ruml, a business and educational spokesman of New York City. Critical of the traditional role of trustees in university management, the document summoned them to greater involvement, even to the extent of assuming control over the design and administration of the curriculum. For de Kiewiet the initial reaction to that idea was that it would be "an intolerable and dangerous invasion" of faculty prerogatives; later his indignation cooled, though, in fact, nothing was done to implement the Ruml proposal concerning courses of study. 12 Already the President had handed the executive committee a fresh and elaborate agenda of progress for the University, as is related farther along, and the committee had approved revisions in the trustee by-laws. As the sequel to the latter action, the term of alumni-elected trustees was extended from three years to six, the scope of the executive committee was somewhat clarified, and the accountability of all administrative officers to the president was more explicitly spelled out. 13IV"The University is to be congratulated upon the excellent state of its finances," reads the Middle States Association evaluation, "and upon the large contribution made by endowment income to its operations. One is impressed by the businesslike way in which the University's financial affairs have been handled, and indeed the casual observer might be inclined to think that the philosophy of business rather than education had predominated in the University's evolution...It may be that the officers and trustees... are somewhat too conservative in the management of financial affairs." 14Neither the reaction of the University officers to these comments nor the degree of knowledge of the visiting evaluators about the Greater University Program then in course are disclosed in the records. Perhaps they had learned that in the recent past the University had borrowed at low rates from the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency to finance dormitory construction and from Rochester banks for residential and administration buildings. Perhaps they knew that the Ford Foundation had given (1955) $1.1 million as endowment to raise faculty compensation--part of it as a "bonus " because of what the University had already achieved in this direction--and had also given nearly a quarter of a million for Strong Hospital. Besides, Mrs. Ernest H. Woodward, of LeRoy, New York, had donated a million dollars to maintain the Hartwell Clinic and for related purposes. The U.S. Steel Corporation had given a large lump sum and the Carnegie Corporation had made important gifts for non-western civilization and Canadian studies projects.The Middle States team may also have discovered that Rochester and national business firms, together with U. of R. graduates and parents of undergraduates, in annual giving had placed substantial sums at the disposal of the University. In what seems to have been a pioneer, formula of ongoing support, the Eastman Kodak Company paid $600 a year into the University treasury for each "full year of academic work completed by the employee" at the U. of R., if the graduate "joined Kodak within five years following graduation and [is] presently completing five years of company employment." The Senior classes of 1956 and 1958 earmarked their departure gifts for the Rhees Library. From the estates of Buffalonians Bertha H. Buswell,and her brother, Ralph Hochstetter, more than $12 million, first and last, flowed into the endowment resources of the Medical Center; other important legacies were bequeathed by Carrie Rice Rubenstein ( over half a million for endowment of nursing education and scholarship s) whose family were former Brockport, New York, residents and Ida Lynch whose will bequeathed over $400,000 in memory of Harrison C. Durand, 1882. 15At the same time, the expanding student population on the River Campus and higher tuition charges helped to keep budgets in balance, as did rising income generated by endowments and ever larger appropriations by government agencies, foundations, and industries for research and training. de Kiewiet remarked upon the ki