What Are Some Unusual Conductors Of Electricity
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Water is generally the solvent found in aqueous solution, where a solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. The solute is the substance or compound being dissolved in the solvent. A solute has fewer number of particles than a solvent, where it's particles are in random motion. Interestingly, aqueous solutions with ions conduct electricity to some degree. Pure water, having a very low concentration of ions, cannot conduct electricity. When a solute dissociates in water to form ions, it is called an electrolyte, due to the solution being a good electrical conductor. When no ions are produced, or the ion content is low, the solute is a non-electrolyte. Non-electrolytes do not conduct electricity or conduct it to a very small degree. In an aqueous solution a strong electrolyte is considered to be completely ionized, or dissociated, in water, meaning it is soluble. Strong acids and bases are usually strong electrolytes. A weak electrolyte then is considered to be one that is not completely dissociated, therefore still containing whole compounds and ions in the solution. Weak acids and bases are generally weak electrolytes. In other words, strong electrolytes have a better tendency to supply ions to the aqueous solution than weak electrolytes, and therefore strong electrolytes create an aqueous solution that is a better conductor of electricity.
People are discovering and inventing new materialsall the time, but we seldom hear about them because they're often notthat interesting. Graphene was first discovered in 2004, but what'scaused such excitement is that its properties (the way it behaves asa material) are remarkable and exciting. Briefly, it's super-strong and stiff, amazingly thin,almost completely transparent, extremely light, and an amazing conductor of electricityand heat. It also has some extremely unusual electronic properties.
This is where graphene starts to get reallyinteresting! Materials that conduct heat very well also conductelectricity well, because both processes transport energy using electrons. The flat, hexagonal lattice ofgraphene offers relatively little resistance to electrons, which zipthrough it quickly and easily, carrying electricity better than evensuperb conductors such as copper and almost as well assuperconductors (unlike superconductors, whichneed to be cooled to low temperatures, graphene's remarkableconductivity works even at room temperature).Scientificallyspeaking, we could say that the electrons in graphene have a longermean free path than they have in any other material (in other words,they can go further without crashing into things or otherwise beinginterrupted, which is what causes electrical resistance).What use isthis? Imagine a strong, light, relatively inexpensive material that can conductelectricity with greatly reduced energy losses: on a large scale, itcould revolutionize electricity production and distribution frompower plants; on a much smaller scale, it might spawn portablegadgets (such as cellphones) with much longer battery life.
Electrical conductivity is just about "ferrying"electricity from one place to another in a relatively crude fashion;much more interesting is manipulating the flow of electrons thatcarry electricity, which is what electronics is all about. As youmight expect from its other amazing abilities, the electronicproperties of graphene are also highly unusual. First off, theelectrons are faster and much more mobile, which opens up thepossibility of computer chips that work more quickly (and with lesspower) than the ones we use today. (In 2016, MIT researchers floated the possibility of optical graphenechips that might be a million times faster than the ones we use today.)Second, the electrons move through graphene a bitlike photons (wave-like particles of light),at speeds close enough to the speed of light (about 1 million meters per second, in fact) that they behave according to both the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics, where simple certainties are replaced by puzzling probabilities. That meanssimple bits of carbon (graphene, in other words) can be used to test aspects of those theories on the table top, instead of by usingblisteringly expensive particle accelerators or vast, powerful space telescopes.
NOTE: This classification usually includes locations where volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases or vapors are used, but which would become hazardous only in case of an accident or of some unusual operating condition. The quantity of flammable material that might escape in case of accident, the adequacy of ventilating equipment, the total area involved, and the record of the industry or business with respect to explosions or fires are all factors that merit consideration in determining the classification and extent of each location.
"Fruits and vegetables conduct electricity in the same way a salt solution will complete an electrical circuit," Michael Hickner, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at Penn State, told Live Science. "It's due to the ions in the salt solution. They don't conduct electrons [as traditional electrical conductors do] [How Do Batteries Work?]
A conductor, or electrical conductor, is a substance or material that allows electricity to flow through it. In a conductor, electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or ions, move easily from atom to atom when voltage is applied. Most metals like copper are considered good conductors, while nonmetals are considered bad conductors -- that is, insulators.
In general, conductivity refers to the capacity of a substance to transmit electricity or heat. A conductor conducts electricity since it offers little or no resistance to the flow of electrons, thus leading to a flow of electrical current. Typically, metals, metal alloys, electrolytes and even some nonmetals, like graphite and liquids, including water, are good electrical conductors. Pure elemental silver is one of the best electrical conductors. Other good electrical conductors include the following:
Human beings are also good conductors of electricity, which is why touching someone experiencing an electric shock causes the toucher to experience the same shock. In electrical and electronic systems, conductors comprise solid metals molded into wires or etched onto printed circuit boards.
Semiconductors act as good conductors under some conditions but as poor conductors under others. In a semiconductor, both electrons and so-called holes -- electron absences -- act as charge carriers. Examples of semiconductors include silicon, germanium and various metal oxides.
At extremely low temperatures, some metals conduct electricity better than any known substance at room temperature. This phenomenon is called superconductivity. A substance that behaves in this way is called a superconductor.
It must be understood that not all conductive materials have the same level of conductivity, and not all insulators are equally resistant to electron motion. Electrical conductivity is analogous to the transparency of certain materials to light: materials that easily "conduct" light are called "transparent," while those that don't are called "opaque." However, not all transparent materials are equally conductive to light. Window glass is better than most plastics, and certainly better than "clear" fiberglass. So it is with electrical conductors, some being better than others.
It should also be understood that some materials experience changes in their electrical properties under different conditions. Glass, for instance, is a very good insulator at room temperature, but becomes a conductor when heated to a very high temperature. Gases such as air, normally insulating materials, also become conductive if heated to very high temperatures. Most metals become poorer conductors when heated, and better conductors when cooled. Many conductive materials become perfectly conductive (this is called superconductivity) at extremely low temperatures.
While the normal motion of "free" electrons in a conductor is random, with no particular direction or speed, electrons can be influenced to move in a coordinated fashion through a conductive material. This uniform motion of electrons is what we call electricity, or electric current. To be more precise, it could be called dynamic electricity in contrast to static electricity, which is an unmoving accumulation of electric charge. Just like water flowing through the emptiness of a pipe, electrons are able to move within the empty space within and between the atoms of a conductor. The conductor may appear to be solid to our eyes, but any material composed of atoms is mostly empty space! The liquid-flow analogy is so fitting that the motion of electrons through a conductor is often referred to as a "flow."
All electrical systems have the potential to cause harm. Electricity can be either "static" or "dynamic." Dynamic electricity is the uniform motion of electrons through a conductor (this is known as electric current). Conductors are materials that allow the movement of electricity through it. Most metals are conductors. The human body is also a conductor. This document is about dynamic electricity.
As well as inks, some companies, like Bare Conductive in the UK, have produced paint products that can also conduct electricity. Working much like conductive inks, conductive-paint can be used as a cold solder, to repair PCBs and many more other applications.
Superconductors are remarkable materials that conduct electricity without any resistance at all, but all of these materials require extremely cold temperatures to work. New materials are being discovered, however, that keep raising the temperature limit. These new superconductors are finding many new applications. 2b1af7f3a8